# Abstract of FKI-250-05

Document-Name: 	fki-250-05
Title:		Exposing the Communication Level of Open Systems: Expectations, Social Attitudes and Multi-Source Assertions
[abridged version to appear in the Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Logic and Communication in Multi-Agent Systems (LCMAS'05)]
Authors:	Matthias Nickles
Revision-Date:  July 2005
Category:	Technical Report (Forschungsberichte Künstliche Intelligenz)
Abstract:	Traditional approaches to the modeling of autonomous agents and other information sources
still rely mainly either on the ascription of mental properties like beliefs and intentions to
the various individual agents, or on the often illusory assumption of commonly
agreed knowledge and reconcilable intentions among the agents. The former
so-called mentalistic approaches are, if applicable, very powerful, but
become problematic in open environments like open multiagent systems, the Semantic
Web and Peer2Peer systems with truly autonomous, self-interested grey- or black-box
actors with limited trustability. As an approach to this issue, this paper proposes
social attitudes (\emph{communication attitudes}) in form of dynamic, revisable \emph{ostensible
beliefs} (also called \emph{opinions}) and \emph{ostensible intentions} as a foundational
means for the logical, external description of agents (especially their public assertions and
goals), in order to retain the advantages of BDI-based mentalistic agent models as far
as possible, but with verifiable results without the need to speculate about hidden agent
internals. As potential applications, communication attitudes allow for a simultaneous
reasoning about the ”public image(-s)” of a certain agent and
her mental properties without blurring interferences, new approaches to communication
language semantics, and a fine grained, statement-level concept of trustability.
As a further application of communication attitudes, we introduce multi-source opinions
and opinion bases. These allow for the computational representation of semantically heterogeneous
knowledge, including the integrated representation of inconsistent knowledge in a socially
reified form, and a probabilistic weighting of possibly indefinite and inconsistent assertions
explicitly attributed to different provenances and social contexts (social semantics).
Keywords:	Agent Communication, Open Environments, Semantic Web, Information Integration, BDI, FIPA, Information Provenance
Size:		22 pages
Language:	English
ISSN:		0941-6358
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